Glossaire

Page 1 (A-B)

Agriculture // Agricultura

Economy // Economia

US // 1. The occupation, art, and science of raising crops and livestock (farming and ranching). 2. The entire food production industry, including the supply of materials used in farming, the practice of farming and ranching, the marketing of agricultural products, and the information services available to farmers and ranchers.
Troeh, F.R. and R.L. Donahue. 2003. Dictionary of Agricultural and Environmental Science. USA. Ames, IA: Iowa State Press. See p. 9.
CAN // Agriculture can be defined as the systematic and controlled use of living organisms and the environment to improve the human condition.
Provincial Agricultural Land Commission website.
MEX // Arte de cultivar la tierra
Real Academia Española, 2001.

Agriculture, organic // Agricultura orgánica

Economy // Economia

US // An ecological production management system that promotes and enhances biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. It is based on minimal use of off-farm inputs and on management practices that restore, maintain and enhance ecological harmony. To use the “organic” label requires USDA certification.
USDA website, NAL.
CAN // CFIA-Regulated. Strict respect for the links and natural balances between the soil, plants and animals (animals nourish the soil, which nourishes plants), to which is added the constraint of a prohibition against synthetic chemicals. From this principle and this constraint follow a number of agricultural practices which distinguish organic from conventional farming, including: (1) a prohibition against chemical fertilizers and pesticides, plant and animal growth regulators, hormones, antibiotics, preservatives, etc.; (2) a prohibition against genetically modified organisms; (3) a prohibition against soilless culture (which does not exclude greenhouse growing); (4) the requirement, in the case of animal production, to allow free ranging, to use organically produced feed, to limit animal density in buildings, etc.; and (5) the requirement to observe conversion periods in crop production before any “organic” commercial exploitation, etc.
Forge 2001.
MEX // Productos orgánicos (incluyendo carne), los cuales se definen por no utilizar ningún agroquímico. Este tipo de productos se desarrollan bajo un sistema de insumos naturales y buenas prácticas agrícolas (BPA) que protegen el medio ambiente, con el fin de generar un sistema de producción autosostenible en el largo plazo y así obtener productos libres de residuos químicos tanto frescos como procesados.
SAGARPA, s-f.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Beef, chemical-free; Beef, free range; Beef, organic; Feed, organic; Rangeland management (Management); Biodynamic; Graze Well Standard; Natural; Proof of process (Marketing)
ESP // Carne de ganado libre de sustancias químicas; Ganado, libre pastoreo; Carne orgánica; Ganado alimentado con alimentos orgánicos; Manejo de agostadero (Manejo); Biodinámico; estándar de buen pastoreo; Certificación, procesos (Mercadotecnia)

Animal Unit // Unidad Animal

Management // Manejo

US // A generalized unit for describing stocking density, stocking rate and carry capacity. Usually accepted to be a 1,000-lb cow with calf or 1.4 yearling cattle.
Beef Quality Assurance: 137. Also National Cattlemen’s website.
US // Measurement based on the amount of feed eaten and manure produced by an average mature horse, cow, or the equivalent.
Herren, R.V. and R.L. Donahue. 1991. The Agriculture Dictionary. USA. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers. See p. 21.
CAN // Considered to be one mature cow of about 1,000 pounds (450 kg), either dry or with calf up to 6 months of age, or their equivalent, consuming about 26 pounds (12 kg) of forage on an oven-dry basis.
Bruynooghe and Macdonald 2008: 104.
MEX // La unidad animal (U.A) la constituye una vaca adulta (vientre bovino) de 400 a 450 kg de peso, en gestación o mantenimiento que para satisfacer sus necesidades alimenticias y cumplir con su función zootécnica, consume el 3% de su peso vivo de forraje, en base a materia seca por día, y que se utiliza como base de equivalencia para referencia en animales mayores o menores.
SAGARPA 2003.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Reproductive age (Management)
ESP // Vientre en edad reproductiva (Manejo)

Beef, free range // Ganado, libre pastoreo

Management // Manejo

US // Beef that comes from cattle that were not confined during most or all of their lives. Also can imply that animals were fed on what was not commercially produced. It is sometimes combined with grass-fed or organic, but there is no “free-range beef” certification. There is, however, a “free-range poultry” designation that is USDA-regulated. It indicates that the flock was provided shelter in a building, room or area with unlimited access to food, fresh water, and continuous access to the outdoors during their production cycle.
USDA website, NOP. Also Nevada Free Range Beef website.
MEX // Carne producida a partir de ganado en libre pastoreo.
Sánchez Granillo, E., PhD. Councillor of the Minister, Ministry of Rural Development, State Government of Chihuahua. Personal communication, 2012.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Agriculture, organic (Economy); Beef, chemical-free; Beef, organic; Feed, organic (Management); Biodynamic; Natural; Proof of process (Marketing)
ESP // Agricultura orgánica (Economía); Carne de ganado libre de sustancias químicas; Carne orgánica; Ganado alimentado con alimentos orgánicos (Manejo); Biodinámico; Natural; Certificación, procesos (Mercadotecia)

Antibiotic free // Libre de antibioticos

Management // Manejo

US // This term implies the animals have not received any antibiotics during the course of its lifetime. Use of the term “antibiotic free” is considered “unapprovable” by USDA and may not be used on any meat products. “No antibiotics administered” and “raised without antibiotics” are considered acceptable to use by the USDA. Although the USDA is accountable for proper use of these claims, there is no verification system in place.
Greener Choices website.
CAN // Not treated in any way with antibiotics
Chicken Farmers of Canada´s website.
MEX // Producto – carne o leche – libre de residuos de antibioticos.
Sánchez Granillo, E., PhD. Councillor of the Minister, Ministry of Rural Development, State Government of Chihuahua. Personal communication, 2012.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Beef, chemical-free; Beef, free range; Beef, organic; Feed, organic; Never Ever 3 (NE3); Rangeland management (Management); Biodynamic; Graze Well Standard; Natural; Proof of process (Marketing)
ESP // Carne de ganado, 100% natural; Ganado, libre pastoreo; Ganado alimentado con alimentos orgánicos; Nunca jamás; Manejo de agostadero (Manejo); Biodinámico; estándar de buen pastoreo; Natural; Certificación, procesos (Mercadotecia)

Beef, All-natural // Carne de ganado, 100% natural

Management // Manejo

US // Definitions vary. Ranches marketing “all-natural” beef start with the USDA requirement that beef must be “minimally processed” and have “no added ingredients,” then add their own “natural” principles to the production of their beef. For example: Niman Ranch (CA) claims cattle are never given hormones or antibiotics, they are fed a vegetarian diet and are raised outdoors on pasture or in deeply bedded pens. Nolan Ryan (TX) claims cattle are raised on natural grasslands and fed a diet of high quality grains grown by local farmers. Colorado’s Best Beef Company (CO) claims cattle receive no feed antibiotics, no growth hormones and no steroids.
Niman Ranch website; Nolan Ryan’s Texas Beef website; Colorado’s Best Beef website.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Antibiotic free; Beef, chemical-free; Beef, free range; Beef, organic; Feed, organic; Never Ever 3 (NE3); Rangeland management (Management); Biodynamic; Graze Well Standard; Natural; Proof of process (Marketing)
ESP // Carne de ganado, 100% natural; Ganado, libre pastoreo; Ganado alimentado con alimentos orgánicos; Nunca jamás; Manejo de agostadero (Manejo); Biodinámico; estándar de buen pastoreo; Natural; Certificación, procesos (Mercadotecia)

Beef, artisan // Carne de ganado artesanal

Marketing // Mercadotecnia

US // A trademark of The Artisan Beef Institute. The institute promotes collaboration between professional cooks, ranchers and butchers to foster education and research concerning the quality (including texture and flavor) of beef and other products. The Institute “certifies” certain ranches that meet their Artisan Beef standards, including a professional taste evaluation.
Note: Consumer choice and education (or lack of) has had a great impact in the beef market. Although the main focus of the Artisan Beef label is on superior taste, the term is included here because criteria for use of the brand incorporate the entire value chain including animal husbandry and land management practices.
Artisan Beef website.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Stocking Rate; Ecologically Sustainable; Grazing management; Management, holistic; Stewardship (Management); Graze Well Standard; Natural (Marketing)
ESP // Carga animal ecológicamente sustentable; Manejo del Pastoreo; Manejo holísitico; Liderazgo, administración responsable (Manejo); Estándar de buen pastoreo; Natural (Mercadotecnia)

Beef, biodiversity-friendly // Carne de ganado amigable de la biodiversidad

Management // Manejo

US // A term used by World Wildlife Fund to indicate beef that is raised according to grazing-management methods that support the goals of biodiversity conservation (specifically within the Northern Great Plains). To date, no specific standards or certifications have been developed.
Freese 2009: 43.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Beef, bird-friendly; Beef, Conservation; Management, holistic (Management)
ESP // Carne de ganado amigable de las aves; Carne de ganado de conservación; Manejo holísitico (Manejo)

Beef, bird-friendly // Carne de ganado amigable de las aves

Management // Manejo

US // A market-based approach to grassland bird conservation currently being investigated by Audubon and other partners as a means to complement existing private land conservation incentives through a habitat focused certification program that results in large-scale, measurable results supported and sustained by consumers.
Currently an internal, working definition of Audubon’s Prairie Bird Team. No citation available.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Beef, biodiversity-friendly (Management)
ESP // Carne de ganado amigable de la biodiversidad (Manejo)

Beef, Branded Product // Carne etiqueta propia

Management // Manejo

US // A specifically labeled product that is differentiated from commodity items by its brand name. E.g. Certified Angus Beef (OH), Laura’s Lean (KY), Cattlemen’s Collection (CO) or Prairie Preserve Beef (NE).
Beef Quality Assurance: 139
CAN // Branded beef products are based on specifications or production standards that are unique to the brand.
Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Market, niche (Marketing)
ESP // Nicho de mercado (Mercadotecnia)

Beef, chemical-free // Carne de ganado libre de sustancias químicas

Management // Manejo

US // Beef from cattle that were produced using no herbicides or pesticides, not even in the general area, such as on nearby fruit trees and roadways. Vaccinations allowed. Any animal that will be processed as organic must be chemical free.
Thomas, H.S. 2005: Getting Started with Beef and Dairy Cattle. USA. North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing. See p. 96.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Agriculture, organic (Economy); Beef, free range; Beef, organic; Feed, organic; Never Ever 3 (Management); Biodynamic; Natural; Proof of process (Marketing)
ESP // Agricultura orgánica (Economía); Ganado, libre pastoreo; Carne orgánica; Ganado alimentado con alimentos orgánicos; Nunca jamás (Manejo); Biodinámico; Natural; Certificación, procesos (Mercadotecnia)

Beef, climate-friendly // Carne de ganado amigable del clima

Marketing // Mercadotecnia

CAN // Grass-fed beef produced on land managed for healthy grass cover.
White 2010: 15


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Stocking Rate; Ecologically Sustainable (Management)
ESP // Carga animal ecológicamente sustentable (Manejo)

Beef, Conservation // Carne de ganado de conservación

Management // Manejo

US // A now-defunct Nature Conservancy program with the goal of conserving ecologically significant ranchlands. Ranchers in this program were required to develop an environmental management plan specific to their land, which would enhance soil and water quality, wildlife habitat and/or open space. To continue into the second year, a rancher had to agree to a Full Stewardship Plan, including specific commitments to open space. These commitments included easements and/or donations of the proceeds from a land sale to a local land trust.
Grewell, J.B. and C.J. Landry. 2003. Ecological Agrarian: Agriculture’s First Evolution in 10,000 years. USA. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press. See pp. 30-31.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Beef, biodiversity-friendly; Beef, bird-friendly (Management) Graze Well Standard (Marketing)
ESP // Carne de ganado amigable de la biodiversidad; Carne de ganado amigable de las aves (Manejo); estándar de buen pastoreo (Mercadotecnia)

Beef, forage-finished // Carne de ganado finalizada con forraje

Management // Manejo

CAN // Animal diets must be 100% forage from weaning to slaughter; this may be any combination of grass and legumes from pasture during the growing season or stored forage during the feed period (winter). The animal (including calves) cannot be fed energy in the form of starch (e.g. cereal grains, potato waste, etc).
Manitoba Grass Fed Beef Association 2011
CAN // “Forage finished beef” is meat that has been produced by feeding beef cattle a diet of high quality forage from start to finish. Grain is not utilized at all during this process.
Manitoba Forage Council 2007: 4


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Forage; Beef, grass-finished (Management)
ESP // Forraje; Carne de ganado finalizada en pradera (Manejo)

Beef, grain-finished // Carne de ganado finalizado con grano

Management // Manejo

US // Raising cattle primarily on grass and then finishing for a very short time on grain.
Thomas, H. 2005. Getting Started with Beef and Dairy Cattle. USA. North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing. See p. 100.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Beef, grain-supplemented (Management)
ESP // Carne de ganado suplementado con grano (Manejo)

Beef, grain-supplemented // Carne de ganado suplementado con grano

Management // Manejo

US // Animals are fed a mixture of grain and grasses—they are not forced to eat grain, but it is provided for them in small amounts in the field.
Weber, K. 2009. Food, Inc. USA. New York, NY: Perseus Books Group. See p. 199.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Beef, grain-finished (Management)
ESP // Carne de ganado finalizado con grano (Manejo)

Beef, grass fattened // Engorda de ganado en pradera

Management // Manejo

US // Beef from cattle fattened on grass forage, in contrast to cattle fed grain or high-protein feeds.
Troeh, F.R. and R.L. Donahue. 2003. Dictionary of Agricultural and Environmental Science. USA. Ames, IA: Iowa State Press. See p. 211.
MEX // Carne producida por ganado engordado en praderas.
Sánchez Granillo, E., PhD. Councillor of the Minister, Ministry of Rural Development, State Government of Chihuahua. Personal communication, 2012.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Beef, grass-fed; Beef, grass-finished (Management)
ESP // Carne de ganado de pradera; Carne de ganado finalizada en pradera (Manejo)

Beef, grass fed // Carne de ganado de pradera

Management // Manejo

US // USDA-Verified Label. Animals have fed on grass and forage for their entire lives, with the exception of milk consumed prior to weaning. The diet must consist solely of grass (annual and perennial), forbs (e.g., legumes, Brassica), browse, or cereal grain crops in the vegetative (pre-grain) state. These animals cannot be fed grain or grain byproducts and must have continuous access to pasture during the growing season. This label does not limit the use of antibiotics, hormones or pesticides. This is a voluntary verification. Also called “USDA forage fed.”
Thomas, H.S. 2005. Getting Started with Beef and Dairy Cattle. USA. North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing. See p. 93. Also USDA website, AMS.
US // Generally, beef from cattle that have fed on grass and forage for their entire lives, with the exception of milk consumed prior to weaning. Third-party certification for grass fed beef is available from several organizations, including the American Grassfed Association. Standards vary.
USDA website, AMS.
CAN // Beef from cattle that have eaten only grass or forage throughout their lives, however some producers do call their beef grass fed but then actually finish the animals on grain for the last 90 to 160 days before slaughter.
Alberta Agriculture Food and Rural Development website.

CAN // Animal diets must be 100% forage from weaning to slaughter; this may be any combination of grass and legumes from pasture during the growing season or stored forage during the feed period (winter). The animal (including calves) cannot be fed energy in the form of starch (e.g. cereal grains, potato waste, etc).
Manitoba Grass Fed Beef Association website


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Beef, grass fattened; Beef, grass-finished (Management)
ESP // Engorda de ganado en pradera; Carne de ganado finalizada en pradera (Manejo)

Beef, grass-finished // Carne de ganado finalizada en pradera

Management // Manejo

US // Beef from cattle raised entirely on forage, with no concentrates (grains or supplements) in the diet.
Thomas, H.S. 2005. Getting Started with Beef and Dairy Cattle. USA. North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing. See p. 266.
CAN // Grass finished cattle are fattened on grass only, until the day that they are processed.
Cattlemen’s Beef Board. Note: This is an American organization but the definition is used by several Canadian beef marketers.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Beef, green (Management)
ESP // Carne de ganado sostenible (Manejo)

Beef, green // Carne de ganado sostenible

Management // Manejo

US // 1. Same as “beef, grass-finished.” 2. Grass-finished, but also accompanied by many other claims of sustainability and humane-treatment, such as no pesticides/fertilizers, no irrigation, no growth-hormones, no confinement and more.
PBS Nature website. Also, Green Beef website.
CAN // Cattle that are relatively thin with only small amounts of body condition.
Lardy 1999: 4.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Beef, grass-finished; Beef, humane; Beef, organic (Management); Food Alliance Certified; Humane, certified; Ranching, Predator-friendly (Marketing)
ESP // Carne de ganado finalizada en pradera; Carne de ganado, trato humanitario; Carne orgánica (Manejo); Certificado por Alianza Alimentaria; Trato humanitario, certificado; Ganadería, amigable con los depredadores (Mercadotecnia)

Beef, humane // Carne de ganado, trato humanitario

Management // Manejo

US // Beef from cattle that were “treated humanely” during the production cycle. Multiple labeling programs exist, but verification of these claims varies widely.
USDA website, NOP.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Beef, grass-finished; Beef, green; Beef, organic (Management); Food Alliance Certified; Humane, certified; Ranching, Predator-friendly (Marketing)
ESP // Carne de ganado finalizada en pradera; Carne de ganado, trato humanitario; Carne orgánica (Manejo); Certificado por Alianza Alimentaria; Trato humanitario, certificado; Ganadería, amigable con los depredadores (Mercadotecnia)

Beef, natural // Carne de ganado libre de hormonas

Management // Manejo

US // 1. A term used widely and without federal verification for how animals were raised. Over a dozen natural beef programs exist, each with its own production requirements.
2. USDA-Requirement. A label about how beef was processed. The USDA requires that any beef with this label must be minimally processed and with no additives, such as artificial flavoring, coloring ingredient, chemical preservative, or any other artificial or synthetic ingredient. This refers only to processing (meat-packing stage) and therefore is not required to carry claims regarding how the animal was raised. “Natural” does not guarantee that cattle have been grain- or grass-fed, nor is it a confirmation that the meat is free from growth hormones or antibiotics.
USDA website, Fact Sheet. Also University of Arkansas.
CAN // Beef produced without the use of antibiotics and artificial growth stimulants.
Government of Saskatchewan 2008.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Agriculture, organic (Economy); Antibiotic free; Beef, chemical-free; Beef, free range; Beef, humane; Beef, organic; Feed, organic; Never Ever 3 (NE3); Rangeland management (Management); Biodynamic; Graze Well Standard; Natural; Proof of process (Marketing)
ESP // Agricultura orgánica (Economía); Libre de antibioticos; Carne de ganado libre de sustancias químicas; Carne orgánica; Nunca jamás; Manejo de agostadero (Manejo); Biodinámico; estándar de buen pastoreo; Natural; Certificación, procesos (Mercadotecnia)

Beef, organic // Carne orgánica

Management // Manejo

US // USDA-Certification. Beef from cattle raised under natural conditions, using management methods that include no contact with human-made chemicals except for vaccines. It also means animals were raised in a humane and natural fashion, on land properly managed for environmental health and sustainable production. The producer must write an organic system plan and allow official examination of the program. Beef raised in an organic meat program must be fed naturally grown feed, whether grass, grain or hay.
USDA website: NOP, AMS and NAL.
MEX // Productos orgánico (incluyendo carne), los cuales se definen por no utilizar ningún agroquímico. Este tipo de productos se desarrollan bajo un sistema de insumos naturales y buenas prácticas agrícolas (BPA) que protegen el medio ambiente, con el fin de generar un sistema de producción autosustentable en el largo plazo y así obtener productos libres de residuos químicos tanto frescos como procesados.
SAGARPA, s-f


RELATED TERMS

EN // Agriculture, organic (Economy); Beef, chemical-free; Beef, free range; Beef, humane; Feed, organic (Management); Biodynamic; Natural; Proof of process (Marketing)
ESP // Agricultura orgánica (Economía); Carne de ganado libre de sustancias químicas; Ganado, libre pastoreo; Carne de ganado, trato humanitario; Ganado alimentado con alimentos orgánicos (Manejo); Biodinámico; Natural; Certificación, procesos (Mercadotecnia)

Beef, pasture-finished // Carne de ganado finalizado en pradera

Management // Manejo

US // Beef from cattle which graze their entire lives on well-managed pastures, consuming grasses and legumes such as alfalfa.
Gurian-Sherman 2011: 6.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Prairie (Management)
ESP // Pradera (Manejo)

Beef, short-fed // Carne de ganado mantenido en corral durante un periodo corto

Management // Manejo

US // Beef from cattle that spend less time than is typical on the feedlot, making for leaner meat. E.g. 92-94 days instead of the industry average of 120-140 days.
Campbell, D. 2006. The Natural: “Brickless” marketing co-op helps ranchers tap growing market for lean, natural beef. USA. Rural Cooperatives 73(4): 4-9.
CAN // Cattle placed on feed after being weaned. Usually placed on feed during months of March through July. Fed for 120-160 days.
Lardy 1999: 5.
MEX // Ganado que permanece un periodo corto en el corral de engorda para producir carne magra.
Sánchez Granillo, E., PhD. Councillor of the Minister, Ministry of Rural Development, State Government of Chihuahua. Personal communication, 2012.

Biodiversity // Biodiversidad

Ecology // Ecología

US // The variety of living organisms occupying an area, including the number of species, variations within each species, and the habitat that sustains them.
Troeh, F.R. and R.L. Donahue. 2003. Dictionary of Agricultural and Environmental Science. USA. Ames, IA: Iowa State Press. See p. 47.
CAN // The variety and variability found within and among organisms and the natural systems they live in.
Saskatchewan Forage Council 2010.
CAN // The variety, distribution and abundance of different plants, animals and microorganisms, the ecological functions and processes they perform, and the genetic diversity they contain at local, regional or landscape levels of analysis.
PCAP 1998: 43.
MEX // La biodiversidad o diversidad biológica es la variedad de la vida. Este reciente concepto incluye varios niveles de la organización biológica. Abarca a la diversidad de especies de plantas y animales que viven en un sitio, a su variabilidad genética, a los ecosistemas de los cuales forman parte estas especies y a los paisajes o regiones en donde se ubican los ecosistemas. También incluye los procesos ecológicos y evolutivos que se dan a nivel de genes, especies, ecosistemas y paisajes.
CONABIO website
MEX // Concepto que abarca toda la variedad de vida incluyendo a los ecosistemas y a los complejos ecologicos de los que forma parte, comprende ecosistemas, especies y genes.
ECOPAD 2007: 19.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Conservation; Sustainable Development (Environment)
ESP // Conservación; Desarrollo Sostenible (Medio Ambiente)

Biodynamic (Demeter) // Biodinámico (Demeter)

Marketing // Mercadotecnia

US // A holistic and regenerative farming approach that seeks to create a system which can meet the needs of the farm from the living dynamics of the farm itself. The farm’s biodiversity is organized so that the waste of one part of the farm becomes the energy for another part. For certification (via Demeter Biodynamic), a minimum of 50% of the feed ration must come from on-farm production. If the other 50% is imported, a minimum of 30% must be Demeter-certified feed and the remaining 20% must be certified organic. There are other criteria concerning feed supplements and housing/outside access and more.
Demeter USA website