Glossaire

Page 2 (C-M)

Carrying capacity // Capacidad de carga

Management // Manejo

US // (1) The maximum stocking rate that will achieve a target level of animal performance on a particular grazing unit under a specified grazing method. (2) The potential number of animals or liveweight that may be supported on a unit area for a grazing season based on forage potential.
Beef Quality Assurance: 141. Also National Cattlemen’s website.
US // The maximum number of a given type of animal that a specific ecosystem can support without causing environmental damage.
Troeh, F.R. and R.L. Donahue. 2003. Dictionary of Agricultural and Environmental Science. USA. Ames, IA: Iowa State Press. See p. 78.
CAN // TA measure of an ecological site’s sustained forage yield. Carrying capacity is based on a safe utilization level based on mean annual forage production and the plant community’s tolerance of grazing pressure. Carrying capacity does not fluctuate yearly in response to forage production and stocking rates, but does fluctuate with weather conditions.
Saskatchewan Forage Council 2010: 1.
MEX // Número máximo de un determinado tipo de especie pecuaria que un ecosistema específico puede mantener sin causar un deterioro del medio ambiente.
Sánchez Granillo, E., PhD. Councillor of the Minister, Ministry of Rural Development, State Government of Chihuahua. Personal communication, 2012.
MEX // Cantidad de animales que puede mantener un a´rea determinada de agostadero o pastizal por un tiempo determinado sin deterioro de la integridad de los recursos (expresado en hecta´reas por unidad animal por an~o, por mes o por día).
PACP-Ch 2011: 31.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Grazing capacity; Stocking density; Stocking Rate; Ecologically Sustainable; Grazing management; Management, holistic (Managment)
ESP // Capacidad de Carga Animal; Carga animal; Carga animal ecológicamente sostenible; Manejo de pastizales; Manejo holístico (Manejo)

Concentrates // Alimento Concentrado

Management // Manejo

US // Feeds that are more nutrient-dense than grass and hay; they contain more calories per pound. E.g. Corn, milo, oats, barley and wheat. Sometimes fed to cattle when pastures are poor, hay is in short supply, or to finish beef calves faster.
Thomas, H.S. 2005. Getting Started with Beef and Dairy Cattle. USA. North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing. See p. 264.
CAN // High-energy feeds included in the diet to improve the rate of gain and reduce the cost of finishing.
Saskatchewan Ministry of Agriculture 2010: 10.
MEX // Alimento que ha sido elaborado segu´n los requerimientos del ganado, el cual es fabricado por una casa comercial o producido en el establo.
SAGARPA, s/f-3

Conservation // Conservación

Environment // Medio Ambiente

US // Wise use that avoids waste and maintains resoures for the future. It differs from preservation, which excludes use of the resources.
Troeh, F.R. and R.L. Donahue. 2003. Dictionary of Agricultural and Environmental Science. USA. Ames, IA: Iowa State Press. See p. 107.
CAN // The use and management of natural resources according to principles that assure their sustained economic and social benefits, without damaging the environmental quality.
PCAP 1998: 43.
CAN // The wise use, management and protection of resources to maintain their quality and quantity on a sustainable basis.
Prairie Conservation Forum 2001: 27.
MEX // Cuidado o aprovechamiento de los recursos de la tierra y la naturaleza, de manera que se mantienen los ecositemas, las especies y la diversidad genética, así como los procesos ecológicos y evolutivos.
ECOPAD 2007: 19.

Cow, dry / Vaca seca

Management // Manejo

CAN // A dry cow is a cow that is not lactating (i.e., producing milk).
Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development 2013.

Desertification // Desertificación

Management // Manejo

US // Conversion of a habitable area to desert, usually at the border of an existing desert; loss of vegetation, perhaps accompanied by drier climate.
Troeh, F.R. and R.L. Donahue. 2003. Dictionary of Agricultural and Environmental Science. USA. Ames, IA: Iowa State Press. See p. 133.
CAN // Land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors.
CIDA´s website
MEX // Es la degradación de la tierra en zonas áridas, semi-áridas y subhúmedas, resultante de varios factores que incluyen variaciones climáticas y actividades humanas.
SEMARNAT 2010.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Overgrazing (Environment); Carrying capacity; Grassland, poor (Management)
ESP // Sobrepastoreo (Medio Ambiente); Capacidad de carga; Pastizal, pobre (Manejo)

Fed cattle // Ganado alimentado de concentrado

Management // Manejo

US // Steers and heifers that have been fed concentrates, usually for 90-120 days in a feedlot or until they reach a desired slaughter weight.
National Cattlemen’s website.
CAN // Beef cattle grown for beef production.
Fédération des producteurs de bovins du Québec website
MEX // Ganado alimentado con una ración integral en corral de engorda durante un periodo de 90 a 120 días o hasta que alcance un peso adecuado para su sacrificio.
Sánchez Granillo, E., PhD. Councillor of the Minister, Ministry of Rural Development, State Government of Chihuahua. Personal communication, 2012.

Feed, organic // Ganado alimentado con alimentos orgánicos

Management // Manejo

US // Naturally-grown (no pesticides, herbicides, or chemical fertilizers) feed, whether it is grass, hay or grain. Must be purchased by a USDA-certified grower who raises only organic crops.
Thomas, H.S. 2005. Getting Started with Beef and Dairy Cattle. USA. North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing. See p. 96.
CAN // CFIA-regulated: Organic livestock feed contains more than 95% certified organic ingredients.
CFIA´s website
MEX // Ganado alimentado de forma natural, ya sea en pastoreo directo, forraje henificado o grano que no haya tenido aplicaciones de pesticidas, herbicidas o fertilizantes comúnmente utilizados, cuyos ingredientes alimenticios deben ser adquiridos de productores certificados.
Sánchez Granillo, E., PhD. Councillor of the Minister, Ministry of Rural Development, State Government of Chihuahua. Personal communication, 2012.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Agriculture, organic (Economy); Beef, chemical-free; Beef, free range; Beef, organic (Management); Biodynamic; Natural; Proof of process (Marketing)
ESP // Agricultura orgánica (Economía); Carne de ganado libre de sustancias químicas; Ganado, libre pastoreo; Carne orgánica (Manejo); Biodinámico; Natural; Certificación, procesos (Mercadotecnia)

Finishing // Finalización, Repasto/Engorda

Management // Manejo

US // The increased feeding of an animal just prior to butchering, which results in rapid gains and increased carcass quality. See pasture-finished, grass-finished, grain-finished.
Herren, R.V. and R.L. Donahue. 1991. The Agriculture Dictionary. USA. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers. See p. 180; also Weber, K. 2009. Food, Inc. USA. New York, NY: Perseus Books Group. See p. 199.
CAN // Last phase of cattle production during which cattle are grown to an ideal weight for slaughter.
Fédération des producteurs de bovins du Québec’s website
MEX // Es la etapa postdestete (desarrollo-finalización) del ganado bovino estabulado o en las áreas de pastoreo destinados a la producción de carne para abasto o para reemplazo de vientres.
Sagarpa 2003


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Beef, forage-finished; Beef, grain-finished; Beef, grass-finished; Beef, pasture-finished (Management)
ESP // Carne de ganado finalizada con forraje; Carne de ganado finalizado con grano; Carne de ganado finalizada en pradera; Carne de ganado finalizado en pradera (Manejo)

Food Alliance Certified // Certificado por Alianza Alimentaria

Marketing // Mercadotecnia

US // A comprehensive certification through the non-profit organization Food Alliance (OR). Criteria for certification focus on safe and fair working conditions, the humane treatment of animals and the protection of the environment.
Food Alliance website.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Agriculture, organic (Economy); Beef, chemical-free; Beef, free range; Beef, organic; Feed, organic (Management); Humane, certified; Natural; Proof of process (Marketing)
ESP // Agricultura orgánica (Economía); Carne de ganado libre de sustancias químicas; Ganado, libre pastoreo; Carne orgánica; Ganado alimentado con alimentos orgánicos (Manejo); Trato humanitario, certificado; Natural; Certificación, procesos (Mercadotecnia)

Forage // Forraje

Management // Manejo

US // Either fresh of dried plant material consumed by livestock or wild animals as pasture, hay or silage; especially the leaves and stems of grasses and legumes, usually at a growth stage prior to seed production. See roughage.
Troeh, F.R. and R.L. Donahue. 2003. Dictionary of Agricultural and Environmental Science. USA. Ames, IA: Iowa State Press. See p. 190.
CAN // Forages are defined as hay, silage, and greenfeed.
MAFRI’s website.

MEX // Forraje verde o seco que es cosechado para alimentar al ganado.
Sánchez Granillo, E., PhD. Councillor of the Minister, Ministry of Rural Development, State Government of Chihuahua. Personal communication, 2012.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Forage, high-quality ; Roughage (Management)
ESP // Forraje de alta calidad; Forraje (Manejo)

Forage, high-quality // Forraje de alta calidad

Management // Manejo

US // Hay harvested when it is still growing and tender, and therefore contains adequate amounts of protein, vitamins, and minerals.
Thomas, H.S. 2005. Getting Started with Beef and Dairy Cattle. USA. North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing. See p. 100.
CAN // Forage high in protein and energy.
Manitoba Forage Council 2007: 5.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Forage, Roughage (Management)
ESP // Forraje (Manejo)

Grassland // Pastizal

Management // Manejo

US // 1. An area of natural prairie vegetated mostly with perennial grasses and associated forbs, characteristic of subhumid, semiarid, and some arid regions before human intervention. 2. An area seeded to grasses and/or legumes for forage production.
Troeh, F.R. and R.L. Donahue. 2003. Dictionary of Agricultural and Environmental Science. USA. Ames, IA: Iowa State Press. See p. 211.
US // Land which is in grass but not under cultivation. (As commonly used, it is not restricted to true grasses, but may include legumes and other nongrasses.) 2. Land that produced grass just previous to being planted to a particular crop. 3. Any of the great natural regions of the world in which the vegetation is mainly grass or other herbaceous plants.
Herren, R.V. and R.L. Donahue. 1991. The Agriculture Dictionary. USA. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers. See p. 209.
CAN // Grasslands include land that is in perennial grasses and herbaceous species for grazing or other uses including native range, seeded tame pasture, abandoned farm areas and other uncultivated uses (e.g. ditches, riparian areas etc.).
Gauthier, D.A. L. Patino, and K. McGovern. 2002. Status of Native Prairie Habitat, Prairie Ecozone, Saskatchewan. Project report to Wildlife Habitat Canada, Number 8.65A. 1R-01/02, Canadian Plains Research Centre, Regina.
MEX // Vegetación con predominancia de gramíneas.
Rzedowski, J. 1988. Vegetación de México. LIMUSA, México. See p. 392.
MEX // Terreno de abundante pasto; Pasto: cualquier cosa que sirve como el sustento del animal.
Real Academia Española 2001.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Praire (Ecology); Pastureland, Praire. Range, Rangeland (Managment)
ESP // Pradera (Ecología); Tierras de pastoreo; Pradera, Agostadero (Manejo)

Grassland Management // Manejo de pastizales

Management // Manejo

MEX // Disciplina que trata del cuidado y conservación de los componentes estructurales de los pastizales, cuyo propósito es mantener y mejorar su productividad, mientras que al mismo tiempo se utiliza para satisfacer gran parte de las necesidades de la sociedad en su conjunto.
PACP-Ch 2011: 32.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Grazing management; Management, holistic (Managment)
ESP // Manejo del Pastoreo; Manejo holístico (Manejo)

Grassland, good // Pastizal, bueno

Management // Manejo

US // See “Range Condition.”Note: Term is no longer used by NRCS.

CAN // The plant community is comprised of 51-75% of the desirable species in the climax community.
Smoliak, S., J.A. Campbell, A. Johnston and L.M. Forbes. 1966. Guide to Range Condition and Stocking Rates for Alberta Grasslands. Alberta and Forests Publ.
MEX // Las comunidades de plantas deseables están entre 51 y 75% de la comunidad climax.
CFAN. 1965. Estudio integral preliminar sobre la ganadería de la zone norte de la República Mexicana. Tomo IV. Consejo de Fomento Agropecuario del Norte de México y Coparmex. México. Ver pág. 18.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Grassland, poor; Range condition (Management)
ESP // Pastizal, pobre; Condición del agostadero (Manejo)

Grassland, poor // Pastizal, pobre

Management // Manejo

US // See “Range Condition.”

CAN // The plant community is comprised of 0-25% of the desirable species in the climax community.
Smoliak, S., J.A. Campbell, A. Johnston and L.M. Forbes. 1966. Guide to Range Condition and Stocking Rates for Alberta Grasslands. Alberta and Forests Publ.
MEX // 0-25% especies climax (deseables).
CFAN. 1965. Estudio integral preliminar sobre la ganadería de la zone norte de la República Mexicana. Tomo IV. Consejo de Fomento Agropecuario del Norte de México y Coparmex. México. Ver pág. 18.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Grassland, good; Range condition; Rangeland condition (Management)
ESP // Pastizal, bueno; Condición del agostadero (Manejo)

Graze Well Standard // Estándar de buen pastoreo

Marketing / Mercadotecnia

US // An initiative started by the Country Natural Beef Cooperative that incorporates many factors, including individualized land management plans, sustainable land and water usage, protection of biodiversity, and social relevance. Used in conjunction with the Raise Well Standard.
Cobb, T.D. 2011. Reclaiming Our Food: How the Grassroots Food Movement is Changing the Way We Eat. USA. North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing. See p. 261.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Agriculture, organic; Beef, biodiversity-friendly; Beef, bird-friendly; Beef, Conservation; Beef, organic; Grassland, good; Management, holistic; Stocking Rate; Ecologically Sustainable (Management); Biodynamic; Food Alliance Certified (Marketing)
ESP // Agricultura orgánica; Carne de ganado amigable de la biodiversidad; Carne de ganado amigable de las aves; Carne de ganado de conservación; Carne orgánica; Pastizal, bueno; Manejo holísitico; Carga animal ecológicamente sustentable (Manejo); Biodinámico; Certificado por Alianza Alimentaria (Mercadotecnia)

Grazing Capacity / Capacidad de Carga Animal

Management // Manejo

US // 1. The optimal stocking rate that will achieve a target level of animal performance or other specific objective, while preventing deterioration of the ecosystem. Must consider both management objectives and management intensity to be accurate. 2. Total number of AUMs produced and available for grazing per acre or from a specific grazing land unit, a grazing allotment, the total ranch, or other specified land area. Synonym, in part, to carrying capacity but with the latter term not being restricted to grazed forage.
Vallentine, J.F. 2001. Grazing Management. USA. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. See p. 566.
CAN // The maximum stocking rate that will achieve a target level of animal performance in a specified grazing method, based on total nutrient resources available, that can be applied over a defined period without deterioration of the ecosystem.
Saskatchewan Forage Council 2010.
MEX // Cantidad de animales que puede mantener un a´rea determinada de agostadero o pastizal por un tiempo determinado sin deterioro de la integridad de los recursos (expresado en hecta´reas por unidad animal por an~o, por mes o por di´a, o expresado en unidades animal por hecta´rea por an~o, por mes o por di´a).
PACP-Ch 2011: 31.
MEX // Sinónimo con coeficiente de agostadero.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Carrying capacity; Stocking density; Stocking Rate; Ecologically Sustainable; Grazing management; Management, holistic (Managment)
ESP // Capacidad de carga; Carga animal; Carga animal ecológicamente sostenible; Manejo del Pastoreo; Manejo holístico (Manejo)

Grazing Management // Manejo del Pastoreo

Management // Manejo

US // The manipulation of animal grazing to achieve desired results based on animal, plant, land or economic responses.
Vallentine, J.F. 2001. Grazing Management. USA. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. See p. 567.
CAN // The manipulation of animal grazing in pursuit of a defined objective.
Saskatchewan Forage Council 2010.
MEX // Disciplina diferenciada, basada en principios ecológicos y que se ocupa del aprovechamiento de las tierras y recursos de pastoreo con diversos propósitos, entre los que se incluyen su uso como habitat silvestre, para el apacentamiento de ganado o con fines recreativos o estéticos.
ECOPAD 2007: 20; PACP-Ch 2011: 32.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Carrying capacity; Grazing capacity; Stocking density; Stocking Rate; Ecologically Sustainable; Grazing management; Management, holistic (Managment)
ESP // Capacidad de carga; Capacidad de Carga Animal; Carga animal ecológicamente sostenible; Manejo del Pastoreo; Manejo holístico (Manejo)

Grazing, extensive management // Ganadería Extensiva

Management // Manejo

US // A management plan that utilizes relatively large land area per animal and relatively low input levels of labor, resources and capital.
Vallentine, J.F.  2001. Grazing Management. USA. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. See p. 567.
CAN // Grazing management that utilizes relatively large land areas per animal and a relatively low level of labour, resources, or capital.
Saskatchewan Forage Council 2010.
MEX // Sistema de producción de ganado bovino basado en el pastoreo en agostaderos o praderas de riego o temporal.
SAGARPA 2003.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Grazing, intensive management (Management)
ESP // Ganadería Intensiva/ Ganado estabulado (Manejo)

Grazing, intensive management // Ganadería intensiva

Management // Manejo

US // A management plan that utilizes relatively high input levels of labor, resources, and capital in attempting to increase quantity and/or quality of forage and thus animal production.
Vallentine, J.F.  2001. Grazing Management. USA. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. See p. 567.
CAN // Grazing management that attempts to increase production or utilization per unit area or production per animal through a relative increase in stocking rates, stocking density, forage utilization, labour, resources, or capital.
Saskatchewan Forage Council 2010.
MEX // Sistema de producción de ganado bovino bajo condiciones de confinamiento total.
SAGARPA 2003.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Grazing, extensive management (Management)
ESP // Ganadería Extensiva (Manejo)

Humane, certified // Trato humanitario, certificado

Marketing // Mercadotecnia

US // Animals which were raised according to the standards of the Humane Farm Animal Care non-profit organization (VA). These standards include raising animals with a nutritious diet without antibiotics or hormones, and raising animals with shelter, resting areas, sufficient space and the ability to engage in natural behaviors.
Humane Farm Animal Care website.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Beef, grass-finished; Beef, green; Beef, humane; Beef, organic (Management); Food Alliance Certified; Ranching, Predator-friendly (Marketing)
ESP // Carne de ganado finalizada en pradera; Carne de ganado sustentable; Carne de ganado, trato humanitario; Carne orgánica (Manejo); Certificado por Alianza Alimentaria; Ganadería, amigable con los depredadores (Mercadotecnia)

Management, holistic // Manejo holísitico

Management // Manejo

US // A management system based on a decision-making framework which results in ecologically regenerative, economically viable and socially sound management of the world’s grasslands.
Savory Institute website.
CAN // A whole farm management system that helps farmers, ranchers and land stewards better manage agricultural resources in order to reap sustainable environmental, economic and social benefits.
Holistic Management International 2011: 1.
MEX // Alternativa (de manejo ganadera) que utiliza un enfoque integral, manejando los recursos como un todo.
Jurado, P., A. Melgoza, M. Royo, S. Sierra y R. Carillo. 2006. Impactos del pastoreo controlado y tradicional en ranchos ganaderos de Chihuahua. Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias Centro de Investigación Regional Notre-Centro Sitio Experimental La Campana-Madera Chihuahua, Chih., Méxcio. Ver pág. 6.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Beef, biodiversity-friendly; Carrying capacity; Grazing capacity; Stocking density; Stocking Rate; Ecologically Sustainable; Grazing management; Management, holistic (Managment)
ESP // Carne de ganado amigable de la biodiversidad; Capacidad de Carga Animal; Carga animal; Carga animal ecológicamente sostenible; Manejo de pastizales; Manejo holístico (Manejo)

Market, niche // Nicho de mercado

Marketing // Mercadotecnia

US // Segment of consumer demand targeted by a specialized production and marketing plan. Examples include the “white tablecloth” restaurant trade, health foods, and convenience foods.
Beef Quality Assurance: 150. Also Thomas, H.S. 2005. Getting Started with Beef and Dairy Cattle. USA. North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing. See p. 269.
CAN // A focused, targetable portion of a market with a narrowly defined group of potential customers.
Small Business Canada’s website.
MEX // Porción de un mercado para un producto en particular, que lo hace deseable a ciertos consumidores.
Sánchez Granillo, E., PhD. Councillor of the Minister, Ministry of Rural Development, State Government of Chihuahua. Personal communication, 2012.

Marketing, value-based // Mercadotecnia, basado en valores

Marketing / Mercadotecnia

US // Marketing system based on paying for individual animal differences rather than using average prices.
Beef Quality Assurance: 159.
CAN // A management and marketing tool that rewards or penalizes cattle, based on carcass merits.
Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development 2002: 1.