Glossaire

Page 3 (N-Z)

Natural // Natural

Marketing / Mercadotecnia

US // As required by USDA, meat, poultry, and egg products labeled as “natural” must be minimally processed and contain no artificial ingredients. However, the natural label does not include any standards regarding farm practices and only applies to processing of meat and egg products.
USDA website: Organic Labeling.
CAN // CFIA-regulated. A natural food or ingredient of a food is not expected to contain, or to ever have contained, an added vitamin, mineral nutrient, artificial flavouring agent or food additive.

A natural food or ingredient of a food does not have any constituent or fraction thereof removed or significantly changed, except the removal of water.
CFIA 2012.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Agriculture, organic (Economy); Beef, chemical-free; Beef, free range; Beef, organic; Feed, organic (Management); Biodynamic; Proof of process (Marketing)
ESP // Agricultura orgánica (economía); Carne de ganado libre de sustancias químicas; Ganado, libre pastoreo; Carne orgánica; Ganado alimentado con alimentos orgánicos (Manejo); Biodinámico; Certificación, procesos (Mercadotecnia)

Never Ever 3 (NE3) // Nunca jamás

Management // Manejo

US // USDA Process Verified Program. This label verifies that the beef is free from the following three conditions: administration of antibiotics; administration of growth promotants; feed that contains animal by-products.
USDA, AMS 2009:2.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Antibiotic free; Beef, All-natural; Beef, organic (Management)
ESP // Libre de antibioticos; Carne de ganado, 100% natural; Carne orgánica (Manejo)

Overgrazing // Sobrepastoreo

Environment / Medio Ambiente

US // The act of causing livestock to consume too much of the forage of a pasture or range area, resulting in loss of the most palatable species, reduced plant cover, and excessive soil erosion.
Troeh, F.R. and R.L. Donahue. 2003. Dictionary of Agricultural and Environmental Science. USA. Ames, IA: Iowa State Press. See p. 340.
US // Continued heavy grazing which exceeds the recovery capacity of the forage plants and creates deterioration of the grazing lands.
Vallentine, J.F. 2001. Grazing Management. USA. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. See p. 571.
CAN // Regrazing a plant before it has completely recovered from a previous defoliation event; continued grazing which exceeds the recovery capacity of the plants causes range deterioration.
Saskatchewan Forage Association 2010.
MEX // Apacentamiento frecuente o continuo en determinado territorio, ya sea durante la temporada de crecimiento o bien an~o con an~o, de manera que no se da a las plantas tiempo suficiente para recuperarse.
ECOPAD 2007: 20.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Conservation (Environment); Carrying capacity; Grazing capacity; Stewarship; Stocking density; Stocking Rate; Ecologically Sustainable; Grazing management; Management, holistic (Management)
ESP // Conservación (Medio Ambiente); Capacidad de carga; Capacidad de Carga Animal; Liderazgo, administración responsable; Carga animal ecológicamente sostenible; Manejo del Pastoreo; Manejo holísitico (Manejo)

Paddock // Potrero

Management // Manejo

US // A pasture subdivision within a grazing unit
Beef Quality Assurance: 153.
US // A small area near a barn or stable, usually fenced or otherwise enclosed. It is used for pasture or for exercising animals, especially horses.
Troeh, F.R. and R.L. Donahue. 2003. Dictionary of Agricultural and Environmental Science. USA. Ames, IA: Iowa State Press. See p. 344.
CAN // A division of land within a grazing cell.
Saskatchewan Forage Council 2010.
MEX // Terreno cercado con pastos para alimentar y guardar el ganado.
Sánchez Granillo, E., PhD. Councillor of the Minister, Ministry of Rural Development, State Government of Chihuahua. Personal communication, 2012.

Pastureland // Tierras de pastoreo

Management // Manejo

US // Generally, eastern pasturelands are planted and managed, whereas western rangelands are native pastures (USGCRP; 2009:76).
USGCRP 2009: 76.
MEX // Todas aquellas superficies de terreno que produzcan vegetación en forma natural o inducida, que son utilizadas para el pastoreo de ganado.
SAGARPA 2003


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Grassland; Prairie (Ecology); Pastureland; Prairie; Range; Rangeland (Management)/
ESP // Pastizal; Pradera (Ecología); Agostadero (Manejo)

Prairie // Pradera

Ecology // Ecología

US // Characterized by fertile soil, a mesic climate, and covered originally with coarse grasses, a prairie is an extensive, level or rolling, predominantly treeless grassland.
USDA website, NAL.
US // An area of natural grassland, usually with rich, dark soil on relatively smooth or gently rolling topography and a semiarid to subhumid climate. It may have scattered trees and shrubs, especially along streams and on valley slopes. Large areas of prairie occur in central USA and Canada and in comparable areas in other parts of the world. Smaller areas occur in grassed areas surrounded by forest in more humid climates and in relatively humid sites of drier climates.
Troeh, F.R. and R.L. Donahue. 2003: Dictionary of Agricultural and Environmental Science. USA. Ames, IA: Iowa State Press. See p. 381.
CAN // An area of unbroken grassland or aspen parkland dominated by non-introduced species.
Prairie Conservation Forum 2006: 21.
CAN // Native grassland and parkland including aquatic and terrestrial habitats within the Prairie Ecozone.
PCAP 1998: 43.
MEX // Vegetación con predominancia de gramíneas.
Rzedowski, J. 1988. Vegetación de México. LIMUSA, México. Ver pág. 393.
MEX // Asociacio´n vegetal establecida por el hombre destinada al pastoreo en la que predominan zacates y leguminosas introducidos, o sus asociaciones, por medio de te´cnicas agrono´micas.
Esqueda et al. 2011: 10.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Grassland (Ecology); Pastureland; Prairie; Range, Rangeland (Managment)
ESP // Pastizal (Ecología); Tierras de pastoreo; Pradera; Agostadero (Manejo)

Management // Manejo

MEX // Areas sembradas, generalmente con zacates o leguminosas y sus asociaciones, destinadas a la producción de forraje.
SAGARPA 2003.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Grassland; Prairie (Ecology); Pastureland; Range; Rangeland (Management)/
ESP // Pastizal; Pradera (Ecología); Tierras de pastoreo; Agostadero (Manejo)

Proof of process // Certificación, procesos

Marketing // Mercadotecnia

US // An affidavit that producers must complete to sell their meat through an organic or natural program, or a health food store. It can include information on how the animals were raised, usage of vaccinations and antibiotics, fertilizers and pesticides and how far the animals were transported for harvesting.
Thomas, H.S. 2005. Getting Started with Beef and Dairy Cattle. USA. North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing. See p. 97.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Agriculture, organic (Economy); Beef, chemical-free; Beef, free range; Beef, organic; Feed, organic (Management); Biodynamic; Natural (Marketing)/
ESP // Agricultura orgánica (Economía); Carne de ganado libre de sustancias químicas; Ganado, libre pastoreo; Carne orgánica; Ganado alimentado con alimentos orgánicos (Manejo); Biodinámico; Natural (Mercadotecnia)

Raise Well Standard // Estándar de buena crianza

Marketing // Mercadotecnia

US // An initiative started by the Country Natural Beef Cooperative that protects animal welfare. The principle concerns are how the cattle are handled, what they are fed and how they are slaughtered. Used in conjunction with the Graze Well Standard.
Cobb, T.D. 2011. Reclaiming Our Food: How the Grassroots Food Movement is Changing the Way We Eat. USA. North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing. See p. 261.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Agriculture, organic; Beef, grass-finished; Beef, green; Beef, humane; Beef, organic; Stocking Rate; Ecologically Sustainable (Management); Food Alliance Certified; Humane, certified; Ranching, Predator-friendly (Marketing)
ESP // Agricultura orgánica (Economía); Carne de ganado finalizada en pradera; Carne de ganado sustentable; Carne de ganado, trato humanitario; Carne orgánica; Carga animal ecológicamente sustentable (Manejo); Certificado por Alianza Alimentaria; Trato humanitario, certificado; Ganadería, amigable con los depredadores (Mercadotecnia)

Ranching, Predator-friendly // Ganadería, amigable con los depredadores

Marketing // Mercadotecnia

USCAN // Certified farms and ranches use humane practices to keep livestock safe and wildlife alive. Through pasture management strategies, guardian animals such as dogs and llamas, and vigilant observation, Predator Friendly® producers reduce the risk of conflict between livestock and wildlife.
Note: US certification body under which both US and Canadian ranches have been certified.
Predator Friendly website.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Beef, grass-finished; Beef, green; Beef, humane; Beef, organic (Management); Food Alliance Certified; Humane, certified; Ranching (Marketing)
ESP // Carne de ganado finalizada en pradera; Carne de ganado sustentable; Carne de ganado, trato humanitario; Carne orgánica (Manejo); Certificado por Alianza Alimentaria; Trato humanitario, certificado (Mercadotecnia)

Range // Agostadero

Management // Manejo

US // Synonymous with Rangeland.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Pastureland; Prairie; Rangeland (Managment)
ESP // Pastizal; Pradera (Ecología); Tierras de pastoreo; Agostadero (Manejo)

Range condition // Condición del agostadero

Management // Manejo

US // The present status of vegetation of a range site in relation to the historic climax or natural potential plant community for the site. Range condition is expressed as a percentage of the climax plant community presently occurring on the range site and grouped into four range condition classes: Poor (0-25%); Fair (26-50%); Good (51-75%); Excellent (76-100%). For Canada and Mexico, see “Grassland, good” and “Grassland, poor.”

Note: Term no longer used by NRCS. This term measures the range based upon ecological standards. This is different from “rangeland condition” which measure the range based upon agriculture production standards.
USDA website, NRCS.
CAN // See Rangeland Condition.

MEX // Estado actual de la vegetación de un sitio, expresado en términos comparativos con el máximo potencial de ese sitio.
Esqueda, M. et al. 2011: 9.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Grassland, good; Grassland; poor; Range condition; Rangeland condition (Management)
ESP // Pastizal, bueno; Pastizal, pobre; Condición del agostadero (Manejo)

Rangeland // Agostadero

Management // Manejo

US // Land on which the indigenous vegetation (climax or natural potential) is predominately grasses, grass-like plants, forbs, or shrubs and is managed as a natural ecosystem. If plants are introduced, they are managed similarly. Rangelands include natural grasslands, savannas, shrublands, many deserts, tundra, alpine communities, marshes, and wet meadows (SRM 1999). The NAL authors also include oak and pinyon-juniper woodlands in this definition. Synonymous with “range” and “rangelands.”
USDA website, NAL.
US // A large area of generally untilled open land, especially grassland used for grazing livestock or left for the benefit of wild animals. Also called range.
Troeh, F.R. and R.L. Donahue. 2003: Dictionary of Agricultural and Environmental Science. USA. Ames, IA: Iowa State Press. See p. 398.
US // Generally western rangelands are native pastures.
USGCRP 2009: 76.
CAN // Land supporting native vegetation that either is grazed or that has the potential to be grazed, and is managed as a natural ecosystem, including grassland, forests, and shrubland.
Saskatchewan Forage Council 2010.
CAN // Rangelands, a broad category of land comprising more than 40% of the earth’s land area, are characterized by native plant communities, which are often associated with grazing, and are managed by ecological, rather than agronomic methods. The term “range” can also include forestlands that have grazing resources, or seeded lands that are managed like rangeland. Range resources are not limited to the grazable forage, but may include wildlife, water and many other benefits.
Saskatchewan Forage Council 2010.
MEX // Área de tierra con vegetacio´n natural apta para la alimentacio´n directa de herbi´voros, en particular de ganado dome´stico.
PACP-Ch, 2011: 31.
MEX // Área donde pastorea el ganado, independientemente de la vegetacio´n que exista. El agostadero puede estar ubicado en zonas a´ridas, semia´ridas o tropicales.
Esqueda, M. et al. 2011: 9.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Grassland; Prairie (Ecology); Pastureland; Prairie; Range (Managment)
ESP // Pastizal; Pradera (Ecología); Tierras de pastoreo; Agostadero (Manejo)

Rangeland Coefficient // Coeficiente de agostadero

Management // Manejo

MEX // Superficie requerida para sostener una unidad animal (UA) al año, en forma permanente y sin deteriorar los recursos naturales.
SAGARPA 2003.
MEX // Los coeficientes de agostadero son permanentes. Se calculan para condiciones naturales, es decir, sin considerar el disturbio provocado por mal uso o mejoras de las condiciones de los sitios evaluados. Tienen carácter legal y son vigentes para determinar el tamaño de la pequeña propiedad ganadera.

Nota: Se estima con base en la condición de un sitio dado, su composición botánica y el estado de productividad que guardaba ese sitio en relación a su potencial (CFAN 1965: 20).
SEMARNAT 2000.
MEX // Se estima con base en la condición de un sitio dado, su composición botánica y el estado de productividad que guardaba ese sitio en relación a su potencial.
CFAN. 1965. Estudio integral preliminar sobre la ganadería de la zone norte de la República Mexicana. Tomo IV. Consejo de Fomento Agropecuario del Norte de México y Coparmex. México. Ver pág. 20.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Carrying capacity; Grazing capacity; Stocking density; Stocking Rate; Ecologically Sustainable; Grazing management; Management, holistic; Rangeland Condition (Managment)
ESP // Capacidad de carga; Capacidad de Carga Animal; Carga animal ecológicamente sostenible; Manejo de pastizales; Manejo holístico (Manejo)

Rangeland Condition // Condición del agostadero

Management // Manejo

US // 1. The state of health or productivity of both soil and forage of a given range in terms of what it could or should be under a normal climate and under the best practicable management. 2. An animal that is in a sufficent state of health or condition to be kept on the range.

Note: This term measures the range based upon agricultural production standards. This is different from “range condition” which measures the range based upon ecological standards.
Herren, R.V. and R.L. Donahue. 1991. The Agriculture Dictionary. USA. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers. See p. 381.
CAN // The composition of range plant communities relative to the kinds and relative amounts of plants that range is naturally capable of supporting.
Saskatchewan Forage Council 2010.
CAN // The current state of the vegetation compared with that of the climax or original vegetation for the range site.
Smoliak, S., J.A. Campbell, A. Johnston and L.M. Forces. 1966. Guide to Range Condition and Stocking Rates for Alberta Grasslands. Alberta Lands and Forests Publ.
MEX // Estado actual de salud y productividad de las tierras de pastoreo con respecto a su potencial.
SAGARPA 2003.
MEX // Estado actual de la vegetacio´n de un sitio, expresado en te´rminos comparativos con el ma´ximo potencial de ese sitio.
Esqueda, M. et al. 2011: 9.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN //Rangeland Coefficient (Management)
ESP // Coeficiente de agostadero (Manejo)

Rangeland Health // Salud del agostadero

Management // Manejo

US // The ecological condition of the land, measured by three characteristics: soils/watershed functions; energy flow relationships; ability to recover from a disturbance.
USDA website, NIFA.
CAN // A term used to describe net primary productivity, maintenance of soil/site stability, capture and beneficial release of water, nutrient cycling and energy flow, and functional diversity of plant species on rangeland.
Bruynooghe and Macdonald 2008: 106.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Carrying capacity; Grazing capacity; Stocking density; Stocking Rate; Ecologically Sustainable; Grazing management; Management, holistic; Rangeland condition (Management)
ESP // Capacidad de carga; Capacidad de Carga Animal; Carga animal ecológicamente sostenible; Manejo del Pastoreo; Manejo holístico; Condición del agostadero (Manejo)

Rangeland Management // Manejo de agostadero

Management // Manejo

US // The art and science of planning and directing range use to obtain sustained maximum forage for animal production consistent with uses of the land for other important purposes.
Herren, R.V. and R.L. Donahue. 1991. The Agriculture Dictionary. USA. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers. See p. 382.
CAN // The art and science of optimizing the returns from rangelands in those combinations most desired by and suitable to society through the manipulation and conservation of range ecosystems.
Prairie Conservation Forum 2001: 29.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Stewardship (Management)
ESP // Liderazgo, administración responsable (Manejo)

Reproductive age // Vientre en edad reproductiva

Management // Manejo

MEX // Hembras bovina, ovinas o caprinas en condición reproductiva que están siendo utilizadas para la obtención de crias
SAGARPA 2003.

Roughage // Forraje

Management // Manejo

US // Feeds high in fiber and low in energy, such as hay and pasture.
Thomas, H.S. 2005. Getting Started with Beef and Dairy Cattle. USA. North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing. See p. 270.
CAN // Pasture, dry hay, silage and other roughages including straw, by-products, beet pulp, vegetable waste, etc. converted to 100% dry matter.
Statistics Canada 2003: 9.
MEX // Hierba que se da al ganado, especialmente en la primavera. Pasto seco conservado para alimentación del ganado y también los cereales destinados a la alimentación del ganado.
Real Academia Española 2001.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Roughage (Management)
ESP // Forraje (Manejo)

Stewardship // Liderazgo, administración responsable

Management // Manejo

US // The responsibility for environmental quality shared by all those whose actions affect the environment.
EPA website.
CAN // Stewardship is an ethic that embodies cooperative planning and management of environmental resources with organizations, communities and others to actively engage in the prevention of loss of habitat and facilitate its recovery in the interest of long-term sustainability.
Association of Professional Biology 2008: 1.
CAN // The responsible use (including conservation) of natural resources in a way that takes full and balanced account of the interests of society, future generations, and other species, as well as of private needs, and accepts significant answerability to society.

Note: Original definition taken from Worrell and Applebly, 2000.
Alberta Invasive Plants Council website.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Sustaianble development (Environment); Ecologically Sustainable; Grazing management; Management, holistic (Management); Graze Well Standard; Natural (Marketing
ESP // Desarrollo sostenible (Medio Ambiente); Manejo de pastizales; Manejo holístico; Carga animal ecológicamente sustentable (Manejo); estándar de buen pastoreo; Natural (Mercadotecnia)

Stocking density // Carga animal

Management // Manejo

US // The number of animals, animal units or total animal liveweight present at a particular point in time on a defined area (paddock). Stocking density is usually defined on a per-acre basis.
Beef Quality Assurance: 157.
US // Animal demand per unit area of land at any instant of time (i.e. AU/acre or AU/section of land); an animal/area ratio describing the relationship between number of animals and the corresponding area of land at any instant of time. Also stocking rate.
Vallentine, J.F. 2001. Grazing Management. USA. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. See p. 575.
CAN // The number of animals on a given area of land at any moment in time.
Saskatchewan Forage Council 2010.
MEX // Número de unidades animal que pastorean un área determinada y en un tiempo específico.
SAGARPA, 2003.
MEX // Nu´mero de cabezas de ganado que pastorean en una superficie determinada sin considerar la e´poca del an~o y los dan~os a la vegetacio´n.
Esqueda, M. et al. 2011: 9.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Stocking Rate; Ecologically Sustainable (Management)
ESP // Carga animal ecológicamente sustentable (Manejo)

Stocking Rate; Ecologically Sustainable // Carga animal ecológicamente sostenible

Management // Manejo

CAN // The maximum number of AUMs for a given plant community or vegetation polygon that can be sustained without causing a downward trend in rangeland health.
ASRD 2004: 20.
MEX // Permite la recuperacio´n de la vegetacio´n (cobertura, produccio´n, calidad y diversidad de especies), favorece la cosecha de agua de lluvia y contribuye a reducir la erosio´n; adema´s, la productividad del ganado mejora al disponer de una mayor cantidad de forraje de buena calidad, lo cual favorece el desarrollo de una ganaderi´a sostenible.
Esqueda, M. et al. 2011: 16.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Ecologically Sustainable; Grazing management; Management, holistic; Stocking density; Stewardship (Management); Graze Well Standard; Natural (Marketing)
ESP // Manejo del Pastoreo; Manejo holísitico; Capacidad de Carga Animal; Liderazgo, administración responsable; Carga animal ecológicamente sustentable (Manejo); estándar de buen pastoreo; Natural (Mercadotecnia)

Supplement // Suplemento

Management // Manejo

US // Addition (vitamins, menerals, or protein) to the diet that makes the total ration more complete or balanced.
Thomas, H.S. 2005. Getting Started with Beef and Dairy Cattle. USA. North Adams, MA: Storey Publishing. See p. 271.
CAN // Nutritional additive intended to remedy deficiencies of the diet, such as salt, minerals, protein.
Canadian Hereford Association 2010: 3.
MEX // Complemento alimenticio (vitamina, minerales, proteína y energía) para el ganado.
Sánchez Granillo, E., PhD. Councillor of the Minister, Ministry of Rural Development, State Government of Chihuahua. Personal communication, 2012.

Sustainable Development // Desarrollo sostenible

Environment // Medio Ambiente

US // Development that meets present needs in ways that will not make it more difficult for future generations to meet their own needs.
Troeh, F.R. and R.L. Donahue. 2003: Dictionary of Agricultural and Environmental Science. USA. Ames, IA: Iowa State Press. See p. 398.
CAN // A conceptual idea where development meets the needs of the present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
PCAP 1998: 44.
CAN // The act of balancing human needs for resources with the maintenance of healthy natural ecosystems that support human existence.
Prairie Conservation Forum 2001: 29.
MEX // Ideal conceptual en el que el aprovechamiento de los recursos satisface las necesidades de las generaciones presentes sin comprometer la capacidad de las generaciones futuras para satisfacer sus propias necesidades.
ECOPAD 2007: 21.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Conservation (Environment); Carrying capacity; Grazing capacity; Stewarship; Stocking density; Stocking Rate; Ecologically Sustainable; Grazing management; Management, holistic (Management)
ESP // Conservación (Medio Ambiente); Capacidad de carga; Capacidad de Carga Animal; Liderazgo, administración responsable; Carga animal ecológicamente sostenible; Manejo del Pastoreo; Manejo holísitico (Manejo)

Tagging // Aretado

Management // Manejo

US // Usually refers to putting ear tags in the ears of cattle to be able to track each animal.
National Cattlemen’s website.
CAN // The placing of dangle tags or radio frequency identification tags in the ears of cattle.
CFIA & CCIA, 2010: 1.
MEX // Colocación de aretes para identificación individual de animales.
Sánchez Granillo, E., PhD. Councillor of the Minister, Ministry of Rural Development, State Government of Chihuahua. Personal communication, 2012.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Traceability (Management)
ESP // Trazabilidad o Rastreabilidad (Manejo)

Traceability // Trazabilidad o Rastreabilidad

Management // Manejo

US // An accountability practice in which each beef cut is labeled and traceable back to a single cow.
Alderspring Grass Fed Beef website.
CAN // The ability to identify animals and their origins during an animal health or food safety emergency through the Canadian Livestock Tracking System.
CFIA & CCIA 2010: 1.
MEX // Es la habilidad para identificar el origen de un animal o de sus productos, tan lejos en la secuencia de produccio´n como sea necesario.
SAGARPA, s/f. a.: 38.


RELATED TERMS // TÉRMINOS AFINES

EN // Tagging (Management)
ESP // Aretado (Manejo)